There are many potential technologies for operating a mileage-based system and it is possible that offering options may be most effective for implementation. There are some fundamental criteria that all systems must meet to ensure acceptance and functionality. Systems need to be fair, easy to use, accurate, and efficient in collecting payment and the information collected must be kept private.
ODOMETER: The simplest system would be to measure miles traveled by periodic odometers readings and to assess fees based on that data.
GPS: GPS systems create the most concern about privacy but they also offer the most advanced data collecting capabilities for not just reporting the distance traveled but the type of road.
ON BOARD UNITS: This technology would enable the electronic gathering of mileage measurements by simply plugging into on-board diagnostic ports.
CELLULAR ON BOARD UNIT: Vehicles would use technology installed or as part of an on board unit to measure distance travelled as well as where traveled to compute miles and communicate data.
SMARTPHONE: Smart phones offer a lower cost alternative to more expensive, installed equipment for miles measurement and communication. They combine the GPS tracking capability and the communication vehicle for transferring data to the central billing office.